Review Article
 
Emerging therapies for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma
Sean Turbeville1, Carl S. Hornfeldt2, Milind Javle3, Eric Tran4, Marion Schwartz1
1The Cholangiocarcinoma Foundation, Salt Lake City, Utah
2Apothekon, Inc., Woodbury, MN
3University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
4Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Portland, OR

Article ID: 100072IJHPDST2017
doi:10.5348/ijhpd-2017-72-RA-8

Address correspondence to:
Dr. Carl S. Hornfeldt
Apothekon, Inc.
724 Bielenberg Drive Suite 124
Woodbury, MN 55125
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How to cite this article
Turbeville S, Hornfeldt CS, Javle M, Tran E, Schwartz M. Emerging therapies for the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma. Int J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis 2017;7:36–49.


Abstract
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a cancer arising from the epithelium of intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts. Cholangiocarcinoma often has a poor prognosis due to late diagnosis and the incidence and mortality rate of intrahepatic CCA appear to be increasing. Current therapies include surgical resection, orthotopic liver transplantation, chemotherapy/chemoradiation and palliative care. Depending on the location, the 5-year survival for CCA ranges from 27–60%. Emerging new therapies are currently being developed for treating CCA include immunotherapy, altering the tumor microenvironment, targeting growth factor gene mutations and signal pathways and that control tumor growth, and targeting gene therapy. The objective of this paper is to summarize the research that is currently ongoing for treating this challenging disease.

Keywords: Cholangiocarcinoma, Immunotherapy, Molecular targeting, Mutation profiling, Tumor microenvironment


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Author Contributions
Sean Turbeville – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting of article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Carl S. Hornfeldt – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting of article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Milind Javle – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting of article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Eric Tran – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting of article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Marion Schwartz – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting of article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2017 Sean Turbeville et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.